|Sabine Bank, TX|
Description: The Sabine River, which doubles as a good portion of the Texas-Louisiana border, functions as a natural funnel, directing commerce downstream towards Port Arthur. However, the difficulty of entering the river from the Gulf of Mexico prevented large, oceangoing vessels from reaching the port. Finally, in the 1890s, jetties were constructed at the river’s mouth creating a stable, deep channel and giving rise to a dramatic increase in shipping traffic at Port Arthur. At last, the resources of the area, which included the crude oil and refined products from the Spindletop field, were readily accessible.
Bids were solicited for the construction of two types of lighthouse: a screwpile lighthouse or a caisson lighthouse. When the bids were opened on January 8, 1903, the bids for a caisson form of lighthouse were the lowest. A $33,890 contract was awarded to the Russel Iron and Foundry Company of Detroit Michigan for supplying the necessary metalwork, and the work of erecting the lighthouse was awarded to W.R. Taylor for $37,115, but he refused to sign a contract. The work or erecting the lighthouse was rebid, but when no bids were received, a lighthouse engineer was assigned to see the project completed using hired labor.
After the metalwork arrived from Detroit by railway, the lower courses of the caisson were assembled onshore and then towed to the offshore site on June 24th, 1904. A wooden cofferdam was built in the bottom of the caisson and connected to a central air shaft. This watertight chamber was then pressurized to keep the seawater out and allow men inside to remove the sand and muck below the bottom edge of the caisson. On July 21st, the caisson, which stood in eighteen feet of water, had sunk to the target depth of twenty feet into the shoal. The caisson was then filled with concrete, except for a cylindrical area at its top, which would hold the station’s water cisterns.
The caisson portion was completed in August 1904, but as funding was depleted, the project was put on hold until the following July when an additional $12,000 was made available by Congress. A temporary lens lantern was placed atop the caisson to mark the man-made navigational obstacle during this interval. While work on the five-story superstructure was ongoing, a storm struck the site. On the evening of October 7, 1905, the barometer plunged, the seas rose, and the crew was ordered to vacate their quarters on the temporary wooden wharf for the safer confines of the caisson. Conrad Thompson, who was supervising this phase of the project, described the ordeal. “As the men were in the open caisson sitting up that night a spray would come over every once and a while and wet all hands. There was no sleeping that night and the next day for any of us.” After this sleepless period, the storm quickly abated, and work was resumed after minor repairs were made to the wharf.
Enameled bricks were used to line the inside of the tower and to partition the cylindrical space into wedge-shaped rooms. After expending, $101,353.67, the tower, fully staffed with a keeper and three assistants, first exhibited the light from its fixed, third-order Fresnel lens on March 15, 1906. The lighthouse was painted with red and measured fifty feet tall from the top of the caisson foundation to the ventilator ball on the lantern room. To assist mariners during periods of low visibility, the station was equipped with a first-class Daboll trumpet that was powered by two five-horsepower oil engines and produced a five-second blast every thirty seconds.
Given its remoteness, keepers often served several weeks or even months at Sabine Bank Lighthouse before being relieved, which might explain why it was difficult to secure and retain keepers for the station. The district superintendent in New Orleans complained, “It has been necessary to pick up men who were not on the eligible roster, wherever they can be secured, in order to fulfill frequent vacancies at this isolated station.”
On August 16-17 1915, a hurricane passed near the lighthouse, and the resulting high seas tore away three-quarters of the gallery-level veranda, along with hatches, storm shutters, the water closet, and two of the station’s boats that were suspended from davits. The monstrous waves swept completely over the structure, allowing seawater to penetrate the tower and contaminate the station's drinking water. The keepers kept the light burning until lack of water forced them from the station on August 19. The light was relit on August 23rd, when the rehydrated keepers returned to the station. Albert B. Modawell, keeper, James Brew, first assistant keeper, Joseph W. Gauthier, second assistant keeper, and Ulysses M. Gunn, third assistant were commended by the Secretary of Commerce for performing their duties under hazardous and trying conditions.
After the beating the tower took during the storm, the gallery level was enclosed with three-quarter-inch iron plates dotted with thirteen air ports and topped by a reinforced-concrete roof. These repairs cost just over $15,000 and helped the tower fare better when another powerful hurricane struck the station in 1920.
In October 1920, assistant keeper C. H. Peoples was picked up at sea by the Norwegian tanker Belridge after being adrift in a disabled motorboat for two-and-a-half days without food. Peoples was weak from exposure and lack of food, but was otherwise in fair condition.
The tower was temporarily occupied during World War II as a coastal lookout station. In 1960, the light source was converted to a 150-watt lamp, powered by a 32 Volt DC battery. However, with no live-in keepers to care for the tower, it was steadily falling into a state of disrepair. Had the lighthouse been closer to shore, the required maintenance would have been much easier and more affordable.
The Fresnel lens was removed from the lantern room in 1971, and the tower was converted to solar power. You can see the solar panel and light mounted on the gallery level of the lighthouse, in the color picture on this page, which was taken in February of 2001. Finally, when the condition of the lighthouse threatened the safety of those sent to maintain the light, the decision was made to replace the tower with a steel, skeleton structure.
On March 1, 2001, the Coast Guard published a notice soliciting bids for the reconfiguration of Sabine Bank Lighthouse. The notice stated, "The work consists of demolishing and removing the lighthouse structure above the caisson foundation, replacing the structural main deck at the top of the caisson and installing a new 55-foot tall steel skeleton tower on the main deck. Additionally, the caisson foundation will be rehabilitated with all steel surfaces above the water line to be blasted and painted and installation of new access ladders and main deck handrails. The estimated price range is between $500,000.00 and $1,000,000.00."
Astron General Contracting of Jacksonville, North Carolina was awarded the contract to reconfigure the lighthouse and began the work in late January of 2002. The top section of the lighthouse tower and the lantern room were dismantled and returned to shore, where they were refurbished by R.L. Eldridge and William D. Quick and placed on display at Lions Park in Sabine Pass, Texas. The original third-order Fresnel lens, manufactured in Paris by the firm of Barbier, Benard, and Turenne, can be seen at the Museum of the Gulf Coast in Port Arthur.
The lighthouse was originally located fifteen miles out in the Gulf of Mexico from where the Sabine River empties into the gulf. The refurbished top portion of the lighthouse is now on display at Lions Park in Sabine Pass.
Museum of the Gulf Coast, home
to the Fresnel lens from the lighthouse, is
open 9 a.m. to 5 p.m., Monday through Saturday, and
1 p.m. to 5 p.m. on Sunday. The museum is located
at 700 Procter Street in Port Arthur, and can
be reached at (409) 982-7000.
The lantern room is owned by the City of Sabine Pass. Grounds open.
Museum of the Gulf Coast, home to the Fresnel lens from the lighthouse, is open 9 a.m. to 5 p.m., Monday through Saturday, and 1 p.m. to 5 p.m. on Sunday. The museum is located at 700 Procter Street in Port Arthur, and can be reached at (409) 982-7000.
The lantern room is owned by the City of Sabine Pass. Grounds open.
Notes from a friend:Marilyn writes:
This trip came right after our trip to the Farallon lighthouse. Approximately the same distance, totally better experience for me and my tummy. Ditto for the friends!Joanne writes:
I think we were very fortunate to make the trip out to this light. In its condition, who knows how long it will stand. It would be a great trip to see it again in the full summer with warmer weather.
See our List of Lighthouses in Texas
Pictures on this page copyright Kraig Anderson, used by permission.