Description: A survey report from 1897 provides the following description of Guanica Bay. “About 15 miles eastward of cape Rojo, the south-west extremity of the island of Puerto Rico, is the harbour of Guanica, which is considered to afford the best anchorage on this coast. Here vessels can anchor in 4 ½ to 2 ½ fathoms on sand and gravel; the latter depth being at the farther end of the harbour.” With its entrance defined by Point Brea on the west and Point Meseta on the east, Guanica Bay was an important port with its exports at the time of the survey including sugar, coffee, maize, cotton and starch.
The main entrance to the Guanica Lighthouse was on the north and opened into a vestibule. The coat of arms of the Corps of Road Engineers was built into the parapet above the main entrance. On the west side of the structure were two bedrooms for the keeper and a bathroom, while a living room, engineer’s room, and a kitchen/dining room were found on the east side. A square storeroom was located on the south wall, on the opposite side of the tower from the vestibule. A winding spiral staircase led to the octagonal lantern room, which was surrounded by a cement gallery and a cast-iron balustrade. The original illumination apparatus used in the tower was a sixth-order, Fresnel lens supplied by Sautter, Lemonnier & Cie.
When Major-General Nelson A. Miles was contemplating a landing point for the invasion of Puerto Rico during the Spanish-American War, he first considered Port Fajardo or Cape San Juan on the north coast of the main island. However, when he learned that the enemy was apprised of the plan, he sent a letter to Captain Francis J. Higginson of the U.S. Navy in which he made the following proposal. “As it is always advisable not to do what your enemy expects you to do, I think it advisable after going around the northeast corner of Porto Rico, to go immediately to Guanica and land this force.”
The U.S. Lighthouse Service was directed to take charge of all Puerto Rican lighthouses on May 1, 1900, and it soon inspected all the stations and planned for any necessary repairs. The following description of the work done on the Guanica Lighthouse was included in the Annual Report of the Light-House Board for 1901. “The walls, ceilings, floors, and exterior walks were repaired with cement. A stone rubble wall was built to protect the dwelling from the wash of sand and gravel during the rains.
In 1914, Keeper Domingo Suarez Rosa assisted the captain of a pilot boat that had capsized just offshore from the lighthouse. Keeper Rosa, who had previously served at Cabo Rojo Lighthouse, turned control of Guanica Lighthouse over to his son, Domingo Suarez Cruz, in 1924.
The Guanica Lighthouse was turned over to the Government of Puerto Rico in 1940, but the U.S. Coast Guard still retained access rights to the tower so it could maintain the light. In 1950, the light was deactivated, and the entire site was turned over to Puerto Rico.
Sadly, the historic structure has been repeatedly vandalized and is now practically in ruins, though some parts of its unique architectural elements are still visible such as the white and gray Genoa marble slabs used in the flooring, the exterior gray lime stucco imitating granite blocks, the exposed brickwork in the cornice and around the windows and doors, and the quoining and balustrade on the tower. Most of the lantern room and roof are now gone along with the entire lace-like parapet that was constructed with red brick atop the dwelling.
As has been demonstrated at Point Figuras, it is possible to bring a lighthouse back from near ruins, but unless such action is taken soon at Guanica, this unique treasure may be lost.
Located on Punta Meseta on the eastern side of the entrance to Bahía de Guánica (Guánica Bay). The lighthouse is owned by the Purto Rico Department of Natural Resources. Grounds open, tower closed.
The lighthouse is owned by the Purto Rico Department of Natural Resources. Grounds open, tower closed.
Notes from a friend:Kraig writes:
A map of Puerto Rico that I picked up somewhere on my trip had two lighthouse icons placed near Guanica. I was sure one of them was the historic Guanica Lighthouse, but wasn't positive what the other one might be. I stopped at the harbor and showed the map to some police officers and locals who all agreed that the second faro must be this range light located in the harbor. After solving that mystery, I noticed this monument, also located in the harbor, that honors the veterans of the Spanish American War and was erected on the 40th anniversary of the landing of the American forces in Guanica.
See our List of Lighthouses in Puerto Rico
Pictures on this page copyright Kraig Anderson, used by permission.