|Thames River Range Rear, ON|
Description: In 1793, John Graves Simcoe, the first Lieutenant Governor of Upper Canada, named the River Thames after the river that flows through London in his home country. With a length of 273 kilometres, the River Thames today drains the agricultural heartland of southwestern Ontario into Lake St. Clair.
In November 1836, the petition of Alexander Chewett and seventy-three other inhabitants of the Western District, praying for the erection of a Light House at the mouth of the River Thames, was read before the Provincial Parliament of Upper Canada, who the following March granted £1,000 for a lighthouse to mark the river, and another £1,000 for lighthouses at Port Colborne and Port Burwell on Lake Erie and £1,500 for lighthouses at Oakville and Presque Isle on Lake Ontario.
As a leg injury he suffered during the War of 1812 made it increasingly difficult to run his business, Cartier petitioned the government in 1837 for the appointment of keeper of the lighthouse then under construction at the mouth of the Thames. Claude Cartier served as keeper of the light from 1838 until his death 1855, and during this period a square, wooden tower was erected in 1845 to serve as the front range to the thirty-foot-tall, cylindrical, stone tower, that was built in 1837.
Calude and Nancy Cartier had twelve children, and one of these, Thomas, took charge of the light upon his father’s passing. The Chatham Planet of February 1870 credited Keeper Thomas Cartier with saving eleven lives during the previous twelve years. The article began, “We have frequently, in these columns, been called upon to record the brave, human, and self-sacrificing efforts put forth by Mr. Thomas Cariter, keeper of the River Thames lighthouse, in the way of lending aid – personal and pecuniary – to sailors and others in distress on Lake St. Clair.” A detailed account of each of the rescues was then given, including the following:
In April, 1868, assisted by a younger brother, Mr. Cartier, at the imminent risk of both their lives, put out into the lake in a small sail boat, in a very wild storm, and rescued Capt. Charles Parker and a crew of four men from the scow China, which had become unmanageable and filled with water. Fortunately, the scow had reached the shallow water and the breakers, some two miles from the shore, and the Cartiers succeeded in taking the men safe into their boat, not, however, until the entire deck load had been swept overboard, the men, when picked up, being upon the floating cordwood.
An 1878 inspection of the station noted that Keeper Cartier had eight children and provided the following description of the lights: “[The main light] is a white stone circular tower 30 feet in height from base to vane, with a lantern of iron 7 feet 6 inches in diameter, containing five base-burner lamps, with three 16-inch and two 14-inch reflectors, showing a white fixed light: size of glass 30 x 36 inches. There is also a range light, showing a white fixed light of the catoptric order; it stands on a pier; the lantern is of iron, 6 feet 6 inches in diameter, and has one No. 1 base-burner lamp, with 14-inch reflector; it is in very good order.”
At some point after this, a brick extension was added to the stone tower, raising it to its current height of fifty-five feet. The extension can be easily detected by the stone ring partway up the tower. In 1897, a seventh-order lens replaced the lamps and reflectors used in the main light, providing a considerable savings of oil while producing a more brilliant light. A fifth-order lens was installed in the main lantern room in 1909, and in 1914, a sixth-order lens replaced the catoptric apparatus used in the front range light.
After Thomas Cartier passed away in 1880, his wife Emma cared for the lights for four years until Henry Joseph Cartier, her son, was appointed the official keeper. In 1903, Henry Cartier was awarded $250 for the loss of provision and money he suffered when the keeper’s dwelling was destroyed by fire that April. A temporary dwelling, as seen in this May 1903 photograph, was hastily erected for Keeper Cartier and his family.
The Cartier family cared for the lighthouse for over 110 years until William “Dick” Cartier, the brother of Henry Joseph, passed away in 1950. The Lower Thames Valley Conservation Authority obtained the lighthouse on November 6, 1972, through a grant from Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II, and restored the structure in 1973, rebuilding it stone by stone in the process. The navigational lights in the range lights resumed operation in 1974. A plaque near the lighthouse honors James L. Cooke, a member of the Conservation Authority, who lead the restoration of the tower and light.
The lighthouse now stands in the one-hectare Lighthouse Conservation Area, which is controlled by the Conservation Authority.
Head Keepers: Claude Cartier (1838 – 1855), Thomas R. Cartier (1855 – 1880), Emma Cartier (1880 – 1884), Henry Joseph Cartier (1884 – 1928), William C. Cartier (1928 – 1950), C.W. Riberdy (1950 – ), Armand Jacobs ( – 1966).
Located near the confluence of the Thames River and Lake St. Clair. The lighthouse is owned by the Lower Thames Valley Conservation Authority. Grounds open, tower closed.
The lighthouse is owned by the Lower Thames Valley Conservation Authority. Grounds open, tower closed.
Pictures on this page copyright Kraig Anderson, used by permission.